首页 | 教育网 | English | 搜索
日本频道
学历查询 学籍查询 在线验证 学信档案 学历认证 学生资助 阳光高考 研招网 学信国际 港澳台招生 学信就业 校园

 ·成人高考大纲有新变化
 ·成考考试科目有所调整
 ·全国成人高等学校名单
 ·全国成人高招政策变化
 ·全国成人高校招生目录
 ·成人高考常见问题解答
 
首页 > 成考频道 > 复习指导

成考专升本英语词汇与语法部分九

2007年01月24日 09:54

  第八节  动 词(7-1~13-1)

  考试大纲要求

  动词包括时态、被动语态、动名词、分词以及虚拟语气。

  (1)动词的分类:及物动词与不及物动词;连系动词;助动词;情态动词。

  (2)动词的基本形式:动词原形、过去分词、现在分词;不规则动词的形式

  (3)动词主要时态的构成及其用法。包括一般现在时,现在进行时,现在完成时,现在完成进行时,一般过去时,过去进行时,过去完成时,完成进行时,一般将来时,将来完成时,过去将来时。

  (4)情态动词及其基本用法。

  (5)非谓语动词(不定式、动名词、分词)的形式及主要用法。

  (6)被动语态的构成及其基本用法。

  (7)虚拟语气的常见形式及其基本用法。

  一、动词的分类

  动词类型                在句子中的用法

  及物动词                后面接宾语

  不及物动词              后面不接宾语,或接“介词/副词+宾语”

  连系动词                后面接表语

  助动词                  后面接动词原形

  情态动词                后面接动词原形,或接动词的完成式

  二、动词的基本形式

  动词除原形外,还有过去式、过去分词和现在分词三种形式。

  (一)过去式和过去分词的构成

  1.一般情况下在原形后加-ed.如:work-worked, help-helped.

  2.以e结尾的单词,在原形后加-d.如:like-liked, joke-joked, hope-hoped.

  3. 以“辅音字母+y”结尾的单词,变y为i再加-ed.如:study-studied, carry-carried, copy-copied.

  4.以重读闭音节、末尾只有一个辅音字母结尾的单词,双写末尾的辅音字母再加-ed.如:stop-stopped, prefer-preferred, admit-admitted, plan-planned.

  有些动词的过去式和过去分词有特殊的形式。

  cost-cost-cost      meet-met- met      catch-caught-caught      rise-rose-risen    drive-drove- driven     get-got-got/gotten     leave-left-left     smell-smelt/smelled-smelt/smelled    tell-told-told

  take-took-taken

  (二)现在分词的构成

  1.一般情况下在原形后加-ing.如:go-going, carry-carrying, play-playing, answer-answering, ask-asking.    2.以不发音的e结尾的单词,去e加-ing .如:live-living, come-coming, dance-dancing, write-writing.    3.以重读闭音节、末尾只有一个辅音字母结尾的词,双写末尾的辅音字母再加-ing . 如:sit-sitting, begin-beginning, permit-permitting, run-running, forget-forgetting.

  有些动词的现在分词有其特殊形式。如:die-dying, lie-lying, tie-tying, picnic-picnicking.

  三、动词的主要时态

  (一)一般现在时

  一般现在时表示经常性或习惯性的动作、现在的特征和状态、普遍真理等。

  Galileo said the earth moves around the sun.

  一般现在时的谓语形式:

  1.当动词为实义动词,如read, go, look时,谓语用动词原形,否定句在动词前面加do not ,疑问句加助动词do .常和always, often, usually, sometimes, everyday等表示时间的状语连用。

  I go to school everyday.

  I read the newspapers after lunch.

  Do you agree with me?(agree with sb. 同意某人观点)

  I don't quite agree with you.

  主语为第三人称单数时,动词后面一般加s(具体变化规则与名词变复数相同)。否定句加does not, 疑问句加does .               My father gets up at six everyday.   He loves sports.  Does it hurt?    Does Miss Wu teach us English?      The machine doesn't run smoothly.

  2.当动词为be时,谓语随人称和数的不同用am, is, are 三种形式。

  One is not guilty until he is proved.  在被证明有罪之前, 人都是无罪的。

  Knowledge is power.知识就是力量。     She isn't afraid to go to school alone now.

  Are you from Yunnan?(be from 来自……地方)     What she says is true.

  3.当动词为have, 表示“有”时,谓语用have, 主语为第三人称单数时,用has. 否定句相应用haven't, hasn't, 或don't have , doesn't have, 疑问句将have, has 提至主语前面或加助动词do, does.

  My sister has a lot of toys.     She always have a lot of homework to do.

  Has she/Does she have any money on her?     They don't have/haven't much experience.

  当have 作实义动词,如have a look, have breakfast, have lunch, have supper时,句子的谓语形式与其他实义动词相同。    Let's have a look at the picture.     I always have breakfast at home.    She often has lunch in the dinning hall.

  always、often通常放在系动词之后,实意动词之前。1. It is an accepted custom in our country for men to remove their hats when a woman ______ the room.

  A. enter     B. enters         C. entering      D. entered

  wheh状语从句中的主语是第三人称单数,   答案 B

  2. “I'm leaving now. ”     “Make sure _______ the door.”

  A. you lock    B. you'll lock     C. for locking      D. locking

  make sure+动词原型或句子。  答案 A

  3. Jean could be a very attractive girl but she ________ to her clothes.

  A. pays no attention            B. paying no attention

  C. was paying attention          D. had paid attention   答案 A

  4. “How does Alma like her new work?”     “She _______ with the hours.”

  A. can't satisfy      B. isn't satisfied     C. doesn't satisfy          D. hasn't satisfied

  be satisfied with 对……满意        答案 B

  (二)一般过去时

  一般过去时表示过去某个时间发生的动作或情况,包括过去的习惯性动作。常与表示过去的时间状语连用。如:a minute ago, yesterday, last week, in 1990, during the night, in those days. 用过去时时, 说“过多少时间之后”, 一般用 after, 不用in.

  一般过去时的谓语形式:

  1.动词为实义动词时,谓语用动词的过去式,否定句在原形前加did not, 疑问句加助动词did. 如:

  John suddenly fell ill yesterday.(fall-fell-fallen)

  My mother didn't look well when I saw her last time.

  It happened after four days.     Did they go to Canada last week?

  Nothing happened since then.     He went out just now.(just now 刚才)

  A book that cost a few jiao several years ago is worth 30 yuan now.

  2.动词为be, 主语是I 或第三人称单数时,谓语用was, 其他情况用were.  如

  They were classmates when they were ten years old.    She was once a doctor but now she has retired .

  Why were you absent from school yesterday?

  3. 动词为have 时,肯定句谓语用had. 表示“有”时,否定句可用had not,疑问句将had 提至主语前面,也可与have作实义动词时相同,即否定句用didn't have, 疑问句加助动词did.如:

  They didn't have any money left and they couldn't afford the house.

  She didn't have any rest at noon and continued to work.

  Did you have dinner with Mr. Wang at that famous restaurant the day before yesterday?

  We had a big factory forty years ago.

  1. John was finishing his assignments when his father _______ home from work.

  A. came        B. comes         C. has come        D. is coming

  主句为过去时,状语从句也为过去时。    答案 A

  2. The first zoological garden in the United States _________ in Philadelphia in 1874.(zoo)

  A. had established      B. has established    C. was established       D. established

  考试时应先考虑句子是主动还是被动,然后再考虑时态。 动物园应该是被建

  A、D都是主动语态。    答案 C

  (三)现在进行时

  现在进行时主要表示现在或现阶段正在进行的动作。可与now, at present, at this moment, these days等时间状语连用。

  现在进行时的谓语形式:am / is / are +现在分词。

  What are you doing, Jack?    We're trying to plan our future.

  The train is now rapidly approaching the city.(approach 接近)

  Life is changing all the time.     The woman who is standing here is my mother.

  动词go, come, leave, stay, arrive, die 等用于进行时态中,可以表示将要进行的动作。

  The bus is leaving, please hurry up.     It's going to rain. Don't forget to take the umbrella.

  My uncle is coming to see us this weekend.

  The boy is leaving for Beijing tomorrow.(leave for 动身)

  1. Health experts in many countries still ________ their ideas about the relationships between our food and our health.

  A. have tested     B. tested       C. are testing       D. test

  still(仍旧)一般用于进行时。  still一般放在系动词后面,实义动词前面。  答案 C

  2. What is this noise? Tell me what _______ here.    A. went on      B. goes on         C. is going on      D. will go on          答案 C

  (四)过去进行时

  过去进行时主要表示过去某个时刻或一段时间内正在进行的动作。

  过去进行时的谓语形式:was / were + 现在分词。

  My son was practicing the piano this time yesterday evening.

  When I called him, he was having his breakfast.

  While we were having a meeting, Mary came in and told us the terrible news.

  I was leaving the room when the telephone rang.

  1. James has just arrived, but I didn't know he _____ until yesterday.

  A. will come     B. was coming   C. had been coming    D. comes

  现在完成时表明的是过去的动作对现在的影响或持续到现在。

  had been过去完成时,表示过去的过去。     was coming用过去进行时表示将要的动作。答案 B

  2. “What were you doing when Anna phoned you?”

  “I had just finished my work and _______ to take a bath.'

  A. starting      B. to start        C. have started        D. was starting

  what were you doing提问的是过去进行时。  答案 D

  (五)一般将来时

  一般将来时主要表示准备做的事、将要发生的动作情况、按计划安排要发生的事。

  一般将来时的谓语形式:

  1.am / is / are going to +动词原形

  2.will / shall +动词原形(shall用于第一人称)

  3.am / is / are +不定式

  We'll have eggs and toast for breakfast this morning.

  How are you going to spend your summer vacation?

  I think it's going to rain.

  We are going to the zoo tomorrow.

  The factory is to go into production.

  The line is to be opened to traffic on May Day.

  The machine won't work.

  The meeting won't last long.

  be about to  可表示即将做某事。

  He is about to leave.

  My mother is about to retire.

  一般将来时有时还可以用来表示一种倾向。

  Crops will die without water.

  Whenever I have time, I'll go and see you.

  Whoever fails to see this will make a big mistake.

  Oil will float on water.

  用Shall I…? Shall we…? 开头可以表示征求对方的意见。肯定回答用 “Yes, please”或 “Please do”; 否定回答用 “No, please don't ” 等来回答。

  ——Shall I close the window, it's too cold here.

  ——Yes, please. (No, Please don't.)

  ——Shall we call a taxi?

  ——Yes, let's. (No, I don't think we shall.)

  时间和条件状语主句是将来时,从句中一般不能用将来时态,而用现在时态代替。

  Liping will let you have the book when he is through.(主动语态里let后面再出现动词省略to)

  We shall help you if you ask us.

  I'll ask my mother as soon as she comes.

  It will be six years before we meet again.

  She will miss the train unless she hurries up.

  1. No matter how much _______, it well be worth it.

  A. will the watch cost        B. the watch will cost

  C. does the watch cost        D. the watch costs

  状语从句主句将来时从句用一般现在时。

  how much+主语+谓语

  单问表的价钱:How much does the watch cost?

  答案 D

  2. Although he promised to change, I'm still wondering when he ______ able to put his heart into his studies.

  A. was       B. will be         C. be         D. were

  be able to do

  选项C中when是时间状语从句,谓语不直接跟系动词be.

  答案 B

  3. “Will Susan get her Ph.D.?”

  “It is likely that she _______.”

  A. will         B. does       C. will do it         D. gets it

  用将来时提问直接用将来时回答即可。

  答案 A

  4. “Did you visit Grace last summer?”

  “No, but I ______ her over the Christmas vacation.”

  A. will see      B. be seen     C. have seen      D. have been seeing

  答案 A

  5. Mr. And Mrs. Zhang are going to Brazil next week and they _______ to Mexico later in the month.

  A. will go      B. would go       C. went         D. have gone

  答案 A

  6. “Are there going to be many people at your party today?”

  “We hope that _________.”

  A. there will be    B. there is       C. there are      D. there are going to

  答案 A

  7. “When will the plane arrive?”

  “I'll tell you when I _______.”

  A. will find out             B. find out

  C. am finding out           D. have been finding out

  时间状语从句和条件状语从句中主句为将来时则从句用一般现在时。

  find out 查出原因

  find 发现    look for 寻找

  答案 B

  (六)过去将来时

  过去将来时主要表示在过去某个时间打算要做的事,或从过去某个时间看来将要发生的事。过去将来时常用于间接引语中。

  过去将来时的谓语形式:

  1.was / were going to +动词原形

  2.would / should +动词原形

  3.was / were to +动词原形

  We never imagined that my sister would become a doctor.

  He said he would come back the next day.

  I thought you wouldn't have any objection to it.(objection to sth. 反对某事)

  We were sure we would win final victory.

  He informed us the train was to leave at six .

  I didn't know when they were going to come again.

  He was about to get there when it began to rain.

  You knew I would come.

  1. They thought it ________ fun to take the car.

  A. can be       B. will be      C. would be      D. has been

  答案 C

  2. “Has John finished the report?”

  “No, he knew that he _________ time to finish it by tomorrow.”

  A. won't have                 B. will have

  C. wouldn't have              D. shall not have

  答案 C

  (七)现在完成时

  现在完成时表示过去发生的但对现在有影响的动作,或从过去某个时间开始一直持续到现在,可能还会持续下去的动作或状态。

  现在完成时的谓语形式:have / has +过去分词。

  现在完成时常常与for, since 等表示一段时间的状语连用,副词 just, already, yet, never, ever, lately, recently, so far等也常用于现在完成时中。

  The car has arrived.

  My parents have had a good education.

  I have bought a dictionary.

  The delegation has already left.

  So far we have only discussed the first two chapters.

  We haven't had much rain this winter.

  I have just received a letter from my parents.

  (just already never ever放在have、has后面,过去分词前面)

  We haven't reached an agreement yet.

  Have they got the plan yet?

  My mother has been a teacher for thirty years and now she has retired. (她退休已经十年了不能用She has been retired for ten years表达,retire不能表一段延续的时间,有for或since时谓语动词一定是可以表延续的动词)

  My mother has been a teacher since she graduated from the university.

  My mother has been a teacher since ten years ago.

  for接一段延续的时间,since后接过去时的句子或时间状语。

  I have been here since last October.

  My sister has caught a bad cold.

  She has been ill for a week.

  完成时态的运用还应注意以下两点

  1.come, go , leave, arrive, begin, start, become, join, get up 等表示短暂性动作的动词,不能与表示一段时间的状语连用,这些动作需用表示状态的词替代。

  I have had this coat for one year. ( 替代have bought)

  My uncle has been back for two days. (替代 has come back)

  The train has been away for an hour. (替代 has left)

  The twin brothers have been in the army for three years. (替代have joined the army)

  The film has been on for ten minutes. (替代 has begun)

  We've been up for two hours.(替代 have got up)

  2.have been to 与 have gone to 的区别

  have been to 表示“去过某地”或“去干过某事”,人现在已经回来了;have gone to 表示“去某地了”或“去干某事了”,人还没有回来。

  We have been to the Great Wall.

  I've been to see a doctor.

  I have been to the library.

  He has gone to the library.

  Where is Xiao Wang? -He has gone to Shanghai.

  1. “Who's that good-looking girl Frank is dancing with?”

  “I don't know. I ______ her before.”

  A. had never seen               B. was never seeing

  C. have never seen               D. never seen

  答案 C

  2. “Sorry, I'm a little bit late.”

  “Oh, I ______ here just a few minutes.”

  A. have been     B. had been       C. am         D. will be

  答案 A

  3. “What a boring speaker!”

  “Yes, by the time he finishes, everyone ________.”

  A. was asleep       B. will asleep     C. has been asleep   D. slept

  asleep只能放在系动词后面。

  答案 C

  4. We used to go skating in Michigan every winter, but I ______ for the past five seasons.

  A. don't go     B. haven't gone     C. am not going    D. didn't go

  答案 B

  used to do 过去常常做某事

  5. Lead _______ as a material for sculpture since the time of the early Greeks.

  A. has used    B. used     C. being used        D. has been used

  答案 D

  6. “When did you decide to be a doctor?”

  “Let me see. I'm twenty, and I have wanted to be a doctor since ______.”

  A. ten years      B. ten years ago     C. I was ten     D. Both B and C

  since接过去时的句子或过去时的状语

  答案 D

  (八)现在完成进行时

  现在完成进行时表示在现在以前这段时间里一直在进行的动作,该动作可能仍在进行,也可能已经停止了一会儿。

  现在完成进行时的谓语形式:have / has been +现在分词。

  We've just been talking about you.

  I've been sitting here all afternoon.

  How long has it been snowing?

  I have been wanting to meet you for a long time.

  Recently he has been doing his work quite regularly.

  所有的动词都可以有现在完成进行时,但是有些动词用于现在完成进行时和现在完成时意义差别不大,有些则只能用于现在完成进行时中。

  He's been shaving since last year. (不能用has shaved)

  You've been saying that for two years. (不能用have said )

  My father has been writing letters all this morning.(不能用has written)

  I've been going to the same grocer's since we lived here. (不能用have gone)

  How long have you been waiting for me? (可以用have waited)

  My family has been living here for ten years.(可以用has lived)

  有些动词不表延续不可以用在现在完成时,但所有动词都可以用在现在完成进行时。

  1. “Who has been planning the dance?”

  “Everyone in the club ________.”

  A. is         B. are        C. have        D. has

  答案 D

  2. Though they _______ side by side for twenty years, the two neighbors are not very friendly.

  A. having been lived            B. had been living

  C. have been living            D. having been living

  答案 C

  3. “You haven't got the textbook for my chemistry course yet.”

  “I know, and we _______ to get it for the last five weeks.”

  A. have been trying           B. had tried

  C. will be trying                D. will have been trying

  for the last five weeks表示延续的时间状语

  答案 A

  (九)过去完成时

  过去完成时表示在过去某个时间或动作以前已经发生的动作或情况,简单地说就是表示“过去的过去”。

  过去完成时的谓语形式:had +过去分词。

  When we got to the theatre, the play had already started.

  He suddenly remembered that he hadn't locked the door when he left.

  By the end of that year we had trained more than 1,000 employees.

  They had been married many years before a child was born to them.

  No sooner had we left the school than it began to rain.(no sooner…than= as soon as 一……就……,no sooner开头的句子要倒装)

  (十)过去完成进行时

  表示动作在过去某一时间之前开始,一直延续到这一过去时间。这个时态必须以一过去的时间为前提。

  过去完成进行时的谓语形式:had been+现在分词

  I had been looking for it four days before I found it.

  The telephone had been ringing for three minutes before it was answered.

  It had been raining for two days. The fields were all under water.

  At last we got the letter we had been expecting.

  1. “How long had you been waiting before Mr. Winter finally arrived?”

  “Well, he came at three o'clock, and I _______ the day before.”

  A. had waited after              B. had been waiting since

  C. was waiting from              D. had been waiting for

  等某人 wait for sb.

  for接一段延续的时间,since接过去时间状语或过去时句子。

  答案 B

  (十一) 将来完成时

  表示在将来某一时间之前完成的动作,并往往对将来某一时间产生影响。

  将来完成时的谓语形式: will (shall) have+ 过去分词

  I shall have finished reading the book by the end of this week.

  Before long, he will have forgotten all about the matter.(before long 不久)

  How many words will you have learnt by the end of the term?

  When we get there they'll probably have left.

  He will have finished his term paper by the end of this month.

  1. My niece has been to Sumatra(苏门达腊) and Iran(伊朗) as well as all of Europe. By the time she's twenty, she ______ almost everywhere.

  A. will be     B. would be        C. will have been   D. would have been

  答案 C

  2. By the time you get to Greenwich you ________ the most historic parts of London.

  A. will be seeing           B. will see

  C. are going to see         D. will have seen

  答案 D

  主要复习了动词的十一个时态。重点记忆主句将来时,时间状语从句、条件状语从句用一般现在时。现在完成时中for和since的区别,for接一段连续的时间状语,since接过去时句子或过去的时间状语。有for或since的现在完成时句子中,动词只可以是表延续的动词。现在完成进行时可以接所有的动词。

  进行时态的运用往往根据上下文来决定。

  Be quiet, everybody. The students of Class One are having a listening test.

  When I was cooking these potatoes, I forgot to put any salt in it.

  在运用完成时态时,应特别注意表示瞬息间动作的动词不能与for 引导的一段时间状语连用。

  瞬息间动词往往须换成“be+副词/介词结构”的形式,或选用句式“It is / has been + 时间状语 + since ……”来表态。

  1.“Have the visitors arrived?”

  “Yes, they have been here for an hour.”

  2.By the time we got to the cinema, the film _______ for half an hour.

  A. has begun     B. had begun      C. has been on          D. had been on

  (begun不表延续,答案 D)

  3.It has been less than three months since she joined the army. / she has been in the army for less than three months.(不能说 She has joined the army for less than three months.)

  过去完成时也是一个相对的时态,是在过去的某个时间或动作之前发生的事。

  1.He has already gone home. But before he left, he _________ all the mistakes in his translation.

  A. had corrected    B. has corrected      C. would correct    D. will correct

  (答案 A)

  2.He showed me the pictures he had taken of the animals the day before.

  过去将来时也是一个相对的时态,是在过去的某个时间看将要发生的事。

  I had a discussion with my tutor and hoped he would give us an early reply.

  He said they were going to spend the weekend in the countryside.

  四、被动语态

  (一)被动语态的构成:be+过去分词

  一般现在时           am / is / are +过去分词

  一般过去时           was / were +过去分词

  一般将来时           shall / will + be +过去分词

  过去将来时           should / would + be +过去分词

  现在进行时           am / is / are + being +过去分词

  过去进行时           was / were + being +过去分词

  现在完成时           have / has + been +过去分词

  过去完成时           had been +过去分词

  情态动词            情态动词+ be +过去分词

  (二)被动语态的基本用法

  当句子的主语和谓语呈被动关系,即主语是动作的承受者时(相对于执行者),谓语要用被动语态。具体说来,被动语态主要用于以下两种情况:

  1.不知道或没有必要说明动作的执行者。

  Printing was introduced into Europe from China.

  Such books are written for children.

  Everything has been taken away.

  When will the museum be opened for the public?

  I was born in 1980.

  2.动作的承受者是谈话的中心。

  The composition was written with great care.

  These questions are settled through negotiation.(negotiation 谈判)

  The flowers will be planted next week.

  He is said to be a good teacher.

  For this he was often made fun of.(make fun of 开玩笑)

  若要同时将动作的执行者表达出来,往往可以在执行者前面加上by.

  I'm puzzled by what the teacher has said.

  The door was locked by me when I left the room last night.

  The construction of the road has been held up by a flood.(hold up 阻碍、阻挡)

  He was sent to school by his parents when he was only five years old.

  (三)被动句与主动句的关系

  被动句的主语实际上是主动句的宾语,主动句变为被动句时,主语往往被省略。

  We asked the teacher to explain the difficult sentences again.-The teacher was asked to explain the difficult sentences again.

  I found a poor girl lying on the ground.-The poor girl was found lying on the ground.

  My mother bought me a pair of new shoes.-I was bought a pair of new shoes; -A pair of new shoes was bought for me.

  When we came to the theatre, we found all the seats occupied.-When we came to the theatre, all the seats were found occupied.

  They paint their houses white in spring.-Their houses are painted white in spring.

  The people in the town recognize him as a genius.-He is recognized as a genius by the people in the town.

  有些动词,如let, make, hear, see, watch, notice, have(让,使), feel 等,在主动语态中,其后面的不定式作宾语补足语时to 被省略,但在被动语态中需将to表达出来。在被动语态中,如果一个简单句中有两个动词,后一动词一定要加to.

  I saw him turn round the corner.-He was seen to turn round the corner.

  The teacher made the students copy the sentences many times until they could make sentences themselves.-The students were made to copy the sentences many times until they could make sentences themselves.

  含有被动意义的主动语态:

  (1)某些连系动词,如smell, taste, sound, prove, feel.

  The flowers smell sweet.

  The food tastes nice.

  (2) 某些与can't, won't 等连用的不及物动词, 如move, lock, shut, open.

  It can't move.(不能说 It can't be moved.)

  The door won't shut.

  (3) 某些可和well, easily等副词连用的不及物动词,如read, write, wash, clean, draw, burn, cook.

  The cloth washes well.

  The poem reads smoothly.

  The meat is cooking.

  动词的语态部分主要应掌握被动语态的基本用法及其在不同的时态中的表现形式。

  1.It remains a question when the new classroom building _________.

  A. will be completed  B. had been completed

  C. would be completed  D. has been completed

  (答案 A)

  2.My mother knows Jane; they _____ to each other at a party.

  A. have been introduced         B. are introduced

  C. were introduced               D. had been introduced

  (主动语态:introduce sb. to sb.)

  (答案 C)

  被动语态部分还须特别注意动词make, hear, see等词,其后面用动词不定式作补足语时,to 应该保留。

  Those who won't work should be made to work.

  The teacher was made to give up his teaching because of poor health.(give up 放弃;health 名词;healthy 形容词;breath 名词;breathe 动词)

  1. In modern times, great female chefs have become known, and some of the best cook books _______ by women.

  A. have written    B. are written    C. were written    D. have been written

  答案 D

  2. ________  a new shopping center will be built here next year.

  A. He is said      B. It has said     C. It is said      C. It says

  It is said that 据说

  答案 C

  3. New ideas sometimes have to wait for years before they _______ fully.

  A. accept      B. receive      C. are accepted       D. are received

  they 指代new ideas

  receive:1.收到别人给予的东西,不含收件人是否愿意接受之义。

  I received a letter from a good friend of mine yesterday.

  2.也可表示“得到”, “领受”,“遭受”之意。

  The book was favorably received by the public.

  Accept: “收到”,强调主观意愿决定“接受”,“收授”。而receive只表示收到,不一定接受。

  She received a gift from him, but did not accept it.

  receive 与 accept 在表示赞成某一看法,意见时可以换用。

  The moral code is now received / accepted by all.

  答案 C

  4. In some parks visitors _________ to keep off the grass.

  A. request      B. requests      C. are requested     D. is requested

  keep off 远离

  答案 C

  5. He remembered ________ to the zoo by his father when he was little.

  A. taking     B. being taken       C. to have taken     D. have been taken

  remeber doing 记得过去做的事情

  答案 B

  6. English ________ in a new way at my college in the past few years.

  A. has been teaching           B. was being taught

  C. has been taught             D. had been taught

  in the past few years 近几年。现在完成时

  答案 C

  7. All the machines _______ next month.

  A. will be repaired               B. will repair

  C. will have repaired             D. will have repair

  被动语态必不可少的时系动词be

  答案 A

  8. The rooms were then empty and most of them _______.

  A. have shut up            B. had shut up

  C. have been shut up         D. had been shut up

  答案 D

  9. When they had finished playing, the children were made _______ all the toys they had taken out.

  A. put away                     B. to put away

  C. putting away                 D. be put away

  put away 将某物收起来,放入箱子或抽屉

  答案 B

  分析句子首先要判断主语能不能发出谓语的动作,如果不能发出动作,就选择被动语态,然后再考虑不同的时态。

  五、情态动词

  情态动词有can, could, may, might, must, should, ought to, need, dare, had better, would rather 等。情态动词相当于助动词,不能单独使用,必须再接动词原型。ought to 整个相当于情态动词,否定是在情态动词后加not,但是ought to的否定是ought not to.

  1.can, could

  表示能力、允许、客观可能性。

  She is only four, but she can read.

  Is there anything that I can do for you?

  This sort of thing can't go on.

  I couldn't follow her speech.

  Could you lend me your bike?

  Fire can't destroy gold.真金不怕火练

  2.may, might

  表示允许、猜测。

  The dialect of one province may be quite different from that of the next one.

  Students may not stay out after midnight without written permission.(stay out 在外边待的很晚)

  He asked his mother if he might go out to play.

  “May I open the window?” “Yes, please./ Please don't./ No, you mustn't.” (may 如果要否定用mustn't,could和might用在现在时表委婉的说法)

  3.must

  表示“肯定”、“准是”,还可以表示“必须”,与have to 意思接近,但must 侧重说明主观看法,have to 强调客观需要。must时主观表达方式,have to是客观表达方式。mustn't 表示“千万不要”、“一定不要”。

  If you must go, at least you wait till the rain is over.

  Teachers always tell us we must do everything step by step.

  ——Must I go tomorrow?

  ——No, you needn't.(Yes, I'm afraid so. must一般疑问句的否定用needn't来回答)

  He has to tidy up the room everyday.(tidy up 打扫干净)

  (He must tidy up the room everyday.)

  We have to study a foreign language.

  You mustn't talk like that to your parents.

  4.ought to , should

  表示应该做的事和非常可能的事。

  You ought to go to see a doctor for you don't look well.

  You shouldn't talk like that.

  The old man said you ought to tell the police.

  You oughtn't to smoke so much everyday.

  The work ought to be finished by next Friday.

  The book should be available in the bookstore. (available 可得到的)

  5.need

  表示“需要”。need可以当情态动词,也可以做实义动词。

  Need I come?-Yes, you must.(No, you needn't)

  All you need do is to say yes to his questions.

  He said he needn't hurry.

  need 还可以作实义动词,后面接动名词时相当于被动结构。

  You don't need to stay.(=You needn't say. )

  Does he need to know it?(= Need he know it?)

  needs/ wants/ requires +doing相当于被动语态。

  The question needs/ wants/ requires discussing.(=needs to be discussed.)

  My shoes need repairing.(My shoes need to be repaired.)

  物作主语时need接doing表被动。

  6.dare

  表示“敢”,也可以作实义动词,主要用于否定句、疑问句。

  The boss is so hot-tempered that no one dare tell him the bad news.(so……that 如此……以至于)

  Who dare stop you?

  He doesn't dare to look out of the window.

  情态动词没有人称性数的变化,有人称性数变化的一定是实义动词。

  She dare not say what she thinks.(=She doesn't dare to say what she thinks.)

  7.had better

  表示“最好”。否定为 had better not

  I had better not disturb him.

  We had better go and see the doctor now.

  8.would rather

  表示“宁愿”,后面接从句时,从句的谓语用一般过去时。否定用would rather not.

  I'd rather not say anything.

  John would rather work in a company than in a factory.

  She would rather have the small oranges than the large ones.

  I would rather you came tomorrow.

  (would sooner 迟早,后的宾语从句用虚拟语气,一般过去时。)

  I would sooner she left the heavy end of the work to someone else.

  有些情态动词,如can, could, may, might, must, ought to, should 后面可以接动词的完成形式,表示对已经发生的事的猜测或对应该发生的事的看法。

  They shouldn't have left so soon.

  They must have been through a lot.

  I needn't have told them that.

  He can't have left for Shanghai for I saw him a moment ago.

  How could you have forgotten such an important thing?

  They must have arrived by now.

  You oughtn't to have done that.

  She looks so miserable. You oughtn't to have hurt her feelings.

  “I was late yesterday because my car broke down. ”(broke的原型是break,这里表抛锚的意思) “You should have borrowed mine. I wasn't using it. ”

  情态动词部分除了应了解每个词的具体含义之外,情态动词的否定是在后面加not.特别要注意had bette和would rather的否定。ought to的否定是ought not to.would rather后面接句子只能用一般过去时。can、could、may、might、must、ought to、should后接动词完成式表示对过去事情的猜测。

  “may/might + 现在完成时”表示“也许已经……了”;

  “must + 现在完成时”表示“肯定……了”;

  “can / could + 现在完成时”表示“本来是能够……的(实际上未)”;

  “should/ought to + 现在完成时”表示“本应该……(实际上未)”。

  1.That was in March. You may / might have read about it in the newspapers.

  2.The house is dark; the Browns _______ to bed.

  A. may go      B. should go     C. should have gone    D. must have gone

  (答案 D)

  3.Her husband could have helped her, but he chose not to.(choose)

  4.You _______ yesterday if you were really serious about the job.

  A.ought to come  B. ought come  C. ought to have come  D. ought have come

  (答案 C serious 严肃的)

  此外,考生还应注意need和dare这两个词,它除了是情态动词外,还可以是实义动词,在不同的情况下用法有差别

  1.To travel from England to Scotland you _______ a passport.

  A. mustn't have    B. haven't got     C. don't need   D.   needn't

  (情态动词后要接动词原型 答案 C)

  2.The house needs ________, but they plan to wait until next spring to do it.

  A. paint    B. to paint      C. painting      D. be painted

  (答案 C)

  1. “Do you have to leave?”

  “Sorry , but I really _____.”

  A. have       B. had to        C. do so       D. must

  答案 D

  2. I want to go to the dentist, but you ________ with me.

  A. needn't to go             B. needn't go

  C. don't need go            D. need go

  neen't为情态动词,后接动词原型

  don't need为实义动词,后面接to

  答案 B

  3. “______ you pass me the salt?”

  “Sure. Here you are .”

  A. Might      B. Must      C. Could           D. Need

  答案 C

  4. “I haven't felt well for a week.”

  “You ______ see a doctor.”

  A. have ought ot                 B. had better

  C. should have to                 D. would rather

  答案 B

  5. “Doesn't Elaine want to see that movie?”

  “Yes, but she says _______ go tonight.”

  A. she'll rather not             B. she'd rather not

  C. she'd not rather              D. she won't rather

  would rather的否定词放在rather的后面,动词的前面。

  答案 B

  6. “Listen, Mary is singing in the next room.”

  “That ______ be Mary. She's in hospital.”

  A. may not      B. shouldn't      C. should have gone      D. can't

  答案 D

  7. John ______ a restless person. He kept moving from country to country.

  A. must be     B. should go     C. must have been  D. must have gone

  答案 C

  8. I can't find Tom anywhere. I think he ____ to the library.

  A. may go     B. must go      C. must have gone    D. should have gone

  should have gone 应该……而实际上没……

  答案 C

  9. “What's the matter with that picture on the wall?”

  “It needs _________.”

  A. straightening   B. to be straightening    C. straightened    D. straighten

  答案 A

  10. “Tom graduated from college at a very young age.”

  “He _________ an outstanding student.”

  A. must be     B. could be      C. must have been     D. should have been

  对过去推测,情态动词后接现在完成时。

  答案 C

  11. The old lade needs ________ after her shock.

  A. to comfort   B. comforting   C. to be comforted    D. Both B and C

  答案 D

  六、非谓语动词

  非谓语动词包括不定式、动名词和分词。否定形式在前面加not.

  (一)不定式:to +动词原形

  简单句中如果已经有一个动词做谓语,那么再有一个动词就要在这个动词前加to做不定式。不定式在句子中可以作主语、宾语、表语、宾语补足语、定语、状语等。

  To see is to believe.(眼见为实)

  有时用it做形式主语,真正的主语放在句子最后。

  It only took us a year to finish the work.

  Once you get into the habit of smoking, you'll find it extremely difficult to get out of it.(get into the habit 养成……习惯)

  She likes to play basketball this afternoon.

  The important thing is to save people.

  Not to grasp firmly is not to grasp at all.(不定式的否定放在to的前面)

  She was the first person to think of the idea. (think of 想起)

  He is always the first to come and last to leave the office.

  I have nothing to say on the problem.

  They warned him not to let out the secret.(let out 泄露)

  We are all happy to hear of the good news.

  Let's hurry so as not to be late for the meeting. (so as to do sth. 以便为了做某事)

  如果not不是放在to的前面,那么它不是否定不定式而是否定整个句子。

  They didn't warn him to let out the secret.

  They warn him not to let out the secret.

  (一)不定式:to +动词原形

  不定式在let, have, make (让, 使), see,  look at, notice, hear, listen to, feel 等后面作宾语补足语时to 应省略,在被动语态中to应保留。

  The coach has the team practice hard every night in the past two years.

  I saw a man come into the classroom and talk with the teacher.

  Don't forget to have him come tonight.

  We felt the house shake.

  The house was felt to shake.

  Someone was heard to come up the stairs.

  在help 后, 不定式可以带to 也可以不带to.

  Help me (to) get him to bed.

  He help her lift the box.

  He helped her to mount the bike.

  She was helped to lift the box.

  当不定式和其修饰的词有动宾关系时,动词如果是不及物动词,后面就要有必要加介词。

  There is nothing to worry about.

  Is this something to be ashamed of ?

  I need a pen to write with.

  Give me some paper to write on.

  Let's find a room to put the things in.

  2.不定式的逻辑主语

  不定式前面可以加for 或of引导的短语作逻辑主语,说明不定式表示的动作是谁做的,或不定式指的是谁的情况。

  It is a great honor for us to be present at this party.

  It will be a mistake for us not to help them.

  It is hard for one to do a bit of good.

  在某些形容词如kind, good, nice, wise, unwise, clever, silly, wrong, right, foolish, stupid, careless, considerate, rude,  naughty, impolite等作表语时,用of引导短语。

  It's kind of you to let me use your dictionary.

  It's unwise of them to turn down the proposal.(turn down 拒绝)

  It's very nice of you to attend our party tonight.

  3.不定式的完成式、进行式、被动式

  当不定式所表示的动作在谓语所表示的动作之前发生时,不定式要用完成式: to have +过去分词;当不定式的动作与谓语所表示的动作同时发生时,不定式要用进行时:to be+现在分词;当不定式的逻辑主语是不定式所表示的动作的承受者时,不定式要用被动式:to be+过去分词。完成式意味着不定式的动作发生在谓语动作之前,如果是进行时意味着不定式的动作和谓语动作同时发生,当不定式的逻辑主语是不定式所表示的动作的承受者时,不定式要用被动式。

  I'm sorry to have given you so much trouble.

  I meant to have told you about it, but I forgot to do so.

  They seemed to be satisfied with the result.

  This is the day not to be forgotten.

  He wanted the letter to be typed at once.

  They seem to be getting along quite well.

  He pretended to be sleeping when his mother came in.

  在有些结构中,不定式的逻辑主语虽然是不定式所表示的动作的承受者,不定式仍用主动形式

  We have a lot of work to do.

  Give me something to eat.

  They found the book hard to understand.

  He has no one to take care of. (take care 照顾、照料)

  没有什么人需要他照顾。

  He has no one to take care of him.没有谁照顾他。

  一个简单句同时出现两个动词时,在后面的动词前加to.使意动词和感观动词主动语态前不加to.不定式的完成式、进行式、被动式的概念。

  不定式在句子中可以作主语、宾语、表语、定语、状语(主要是目的状语)、宾语补足语。

  1.“Where do you suggest going?”

  “We promised _______ the children to the West Lake.”

  A. taking      B. to take     C. taken        D. took

  (suggest doing sth.或suggest that +(should)动词原型)

  (Where do you suggest that we should go?)\

  (答案 B)

  2.The city government must take action ________ the increasing population.

  A. to control   B. controlling   C. controls       D. controlled

  (答案 A)

  3.Pessimists warn us not _________ for pretty colors, since the car will come in gray.

  A. ask     B. asking        C. to ask         D. to be asked

  (答案 C)

  考生应特别注意在主动语态中,不定式在let, make , have(使,让), see, hear 等词后面作宾语补足语时,to 应省略,但在被动语态中to 应保留。

  1.The workers asked the factory owner to let him go.

  2.The children were made to repeat their parents' words for several times.

  1. “I'm sorry. Were you speaking to me ?”

  “Yes, I was. Would you please _________ in this room?”

  A. not to smoke            B. not smoke

  C. no smoking              D. no smoke

  would you please+动词原型

  答案 B

  2. There was nothing they could do ______ calmly.

  A. but wait           B. only to wait

  C. except waiting       D. unless they waited

  nothing they can do but do sth.

  答案 A

  3. Mr. Smith doesn't want _______ what to buy.

  A. his wife tell him       B. for his wife to tell him

  C. his wife to tell him        D. that his wife tells him

  答案 C

  4. Many parents allow their children _______ own decisions.

  A. making their          B. making the

  C. to make their          D. to make the

  答案 C

  5. “How can Mary get her money back?”

  “I advised ______ to the manager.”

  A. her speak             B. her to speak

  C. that she speaks        D. a speech by her

  答案 B

  advise that+虚拟语气

  I advise that she should speak to the manager.

  6. “My brother says he won't help us.”

  “Oh, perhaps I can persuade him _______.”

  A. to help    B. helping      C. for helping     D. that he helps

  答案 A

  7. Don't make him _______ it if he doesn't want to .

  A. do       B. to do        C. doing         D. that he do

  答案 A

  8. “Where are you going?”

  “To help the neighbors _______ the dinner party.”

  A. to get ready               B. get ready for

  C. getting ready for           D. by getting ready

  get ready for 为……准备

  答案 B

  9. “Can you ride a horse ?”

  “No. I never had the chance ______.”

  A. for learning            B. for learning how

  C. how to learn it         D. to learn how

  答案 D

  10. I haven't got a chair _______.

  A. to sit     B. to sit on      C. for me to sit     D. for sitting

  答案 B

  11. The city government must take action _______ the increasing population.

  A. to control    B. controlling     C. controls     D. controlled

  答案 A

  12. “If John doesn't come to work on time, he may be fired.”

  “Surely he isn't so foolish ______ not to realize that.”

  A. as        B. that         C. and           D. but

  not so/ as…as

  答案 A

  13. I wanted to go on a holiday last December, but there were so many things ______.

  A. for me to do                B. for me to do them

  C. that I need to do            D. I needed doing

  答案 A

  14. John admitted that it was always difficult ________ .

  A. for him to be on time           B. for him being on time

  C. to be on time for him            D. being on time for him

  不定式有逻辑主语的话要放在不定式的前面

  答案 A

  15. She hopes _______ something from the sale.

  A. to get    B. her to get       C. getting        D. she would be getting

  对某人来说是for sb.

  答案 A

  16.  _______ Mrs. Johnson on my way to the shops.

  A. It happened me that I found        B. It happened me that I met

  C. I happened to find                D. I happened to meet

  happen to do sth. 碰巧做某事

  答案 D

  17. I'm not sure which restaurant ________ .

  A. to eat     B. eating at       C. to eat at      D. for eating

  答案 A

  18. “I need only three more plates for the barbecue.”野餐

  “I wish I had more _____.”

  A. for you to lend              B. for leading you

  C. that you could lend           D. to lend you

  lend 某人东西借给别人

  borrow 从别人那里借东西

  borrow sth. from sb. 从别人那里借

  lend sb. sth.=lend sth. to sb.

  答案 D

  19. Tim sat near the fire _______ warm.(sit)

  A. to get      B. for to get      C. for get         D. for getting

  答案  A

  20. “Has Fred told anyone else about his dismissal?”

  “Yes, he decided ________.”

  A. not keeping secret          B. not to keep it a secret

  C. not to be kept secret        D. not to keep it secretly

  dismissal 撤职

  secret做名词 秘密

  secretly做副词 偷偷摸摸地

  答案 B

  21. He ordered the work ______.

  A. started at once            B. to start at once

  C. to be started at once        D. at once start

  答案 C

  22. “Mr. Wilson is expected back at noon.”

  “Would you have him _____ me then , please?”

  A. call      B. to call        C. calling        D. called

  答案 A

  (二)动名词:动词原形+ing (构成方法与现在分词相同)

  1.动名词的用法

  动名词在句子中可以作主语、表语、定语、宾语等。

  Traveling abroad can be very exciting.(主语)

  (主语是物用exciting,主语是人用excited.(I'm excited.))

  Seeing is believing.

  What he likes is playing chess after supper.

  He hasn't much hope of realizing his wish.

  She is afraid of going out alone at night. (be afraid of 害怕做某事)

  As the three-day conference is coming to an end, the chairman is busy preparing the closing speech.(be busy doing 忙于做某事)

  They don't approve of his way of looking at things.

  (approve of 赞成)

  在句型It is no use / useless / useful / senseless, It is no good, It is worthwhile, It is a waste of time 等中,作主语的必须是动名词。

  It is no use crying now. Let's try to think out a way to solve the problem.(think out 想出……)

  It's no good waiting outside. Let's walk home.

  It's waste of time arguing about it.

  Though it may take some time, it is worthwhile trying.

  同样的结构在句子中作形式宾语和宾语补足语时,真正的宾语也必须用动名词

  I don't think it good waiting for him now. Let's do our homework.

  We agree it worthwhile trying it again.

  She found it useless arguing with her parents about her marriage.

  He thought it absolutely useless attempting the impossible.

  Do you consider it good trying again?

  2.动名词作宾语

  1)动名词作介词的宾语。

  They're all opposed (objected ) to putting the meeting off.(oppose to 反对…… to是介词 put off 推迟)

  I've been looking forward to attending the party for a long time.

  (look forward to 盼望做某事)

  She is afraid of falling behind the others.

  be afraid of: 害怕做某事,害怕发生某种后果;be afraid to do sth.:不敢做某事。I'm afraid to go back home, for I can't pass the exam.

  I don't feel like eating anything.

  They prefer driving to walking. (prefer doing to doing)

  She hurried back to school for fear of missing too many lessons.

  (fear of 害怕)

  The child is accustomed to sleeping alone.be accustomed to 习惯

  注意used to和be used to, get used to的区别。used to 后面接动词原形,表示“过去经常干某事”, be used to 和 get used to 后面接名词、代词、动名词,表示“习惯于某事”。

  I used to be a teacher in this school.

  She didn't use to recite so many new words a day.

  My sister is used to walking to school alone.

  My mother wasn't used to living in the city when she was alive.

  2)动名词作动词的宾语

  有些动词, finish, stand(容忍), avoid, suggest, can't help, mind, admit, enjoy, delay, practice, consider, deny, keep (on), insist on, give up, have difficulty / trouble (in)等,后面必须接动名词(不能接不定式)作宾语。

  Would you mind filling out the form?

  I haven't finish doing my homework.

  I enjoy walking along the river bank after supper.

  As the price of the computer keeps (on) going down, more and more families can afford it.

  The girl insists on living alone .

  有些动词,如remember, forget, need, want, try, mean, regret, stop, go on等,后面既可以接不定式又可接动名词作宾语,但两种结构意义上有差别。

  I remember seeing you once somewhere.(remember doing 记得过去的事情)

  Please remember to bring the book next time when you come to my home.(remember to do sth. 记得要做的事情)

  I regret not listening to your advice. (regret doing sth. 后悔做过某事)

  I regret to inform you that you're dismissed from the company.(regret to do sth. 对未发生的事情感到遗憾)

  I'll never forget seeing the Great Wall for the first time. (forget doing 忘记过去的事情)

  Don't forget to come earlier next time.(forget to do 忘记要做的事情)

  She doesn't want(need) to come.(want 想)

  The house wants(needs) cleaning.(want 后接doing主语一定是物)

  Try knocking at the back door if nobody hears you at the front door.(try doing 试一试)

  We must try to finish the assignment before the boss comes back.(try to do 设法做某事)

  Failing in the exam means waiting for another year.(mean doing 意味着)

  I meant to help you.(mean to do 打算做某事)

  He stopped smoking last week.(stop doing 停止某事)

  He stopped to smoke after he finished this article.(stop to do 停下来开始做另外一件事)

  My good friend told me that I shouldn't go on living like that.(go on doing 继续做某事)

  Having visited the Tiananmen Square, the tourist guide went on to show us around the city.(go on to do 接下来干另一件事)

  3.动名词的逻辑主语

  动名词的逻辑主语说明动名词所表示的动作是谁做的。物主代词、人称代词宾格、名词、名词所有格都可以作动名词的逻辑主语。

  Do you mind my reading your book?(比较:Do you mind reading the book?)

  Do you think there will be any chance of my seeing him again?

  I remember mother once mentioning about it.

  She hates people losing their tempers.(lose one's temper 发脾气)

  She insisted on their both attending the meeting.

  The baby's crying annoyed its mother.

  4.动名词的被动式、完成式

  构成: being + 过去分词。当动名词的逻辑主语或句子的主语是动名词所表示的动作的承受者时,动名词要用被动形式。

  The problem is far from being settled.

  My five-year-old son didn't mind being left at home the whole morning.

  I couldn't bear being made fun of like that. (bear 容忍;make fun of 取笑)

  The child avoided being sent to school by running away quickly.(avoid doing sth.)

  当动名词表示的动作发生在谓语表示的动作之前时,动名词要用完成式。构成:having+过去分词。

  She denied having shot the bird.

  He was praised for having made such a great contribution to the factory.(make a contribution to 对……做贡献)

  I apologize for not having kept my promise.

  We have no idea of his having been in the army for three years.

  I don't remember having ever been given a chance to try this method.(remeber doing 记得过去发生的事情;动名词完成时被动式,构成为:having been + 过去分词。)

  在want, need, deserve , require, be worth, 等动词后,尽管表示的是被动的意思,却用动名词的主动形式。

  My pen needs filling.

  The question requires studying with great care.

  Who needs looking after?

  The place is worth visiting.

  1. He used to ______ the first to arrive and the last to leave.

  A. is        B. was         C. being        D. be

  used to +动词原型

  答案 B

  2. She ______ eat so many sweet things.

  A. used to not            B. never used

  C. didn't use to           D. didn't use

  答案 C

  3. Mr. Brown often wears a heavy coat because he is not used _____ in such a cold climate.

  A. to live       B. to living      C. live        D. lived

  答案 B

  4. I like Jean but I don't like _______.

  A. her sing    B. her singing        C. she sing        D. she singing

  动名词的逻辑主语可以由物主代词和名词代替。

  答案 B

  5. “Why is Fred so upset?”

  “He isn't used ______ criticized.”

  A. be        B. to be           C. to being         D. having been

  答案 C

  6. Do you remember _______ to Professor Smith during your last visit?

  A. to be introduced             B. being introduced

  C. having introduced             D. to have introduced

  答案 B

  主动语态中介绍某人 introduce sb. to sb.

  7. “Is George really leaving the university?”

  “Yes. But would you mind _______ to anyone?”

  A. not mentioning it                 B. not to mention it

  C. not mention it                    D. not to mentioning it

  答案 A

  8. It's no use _______ to get a bargain these days.

  A. to expect        B. expected       C. expecting     D. to be expecting

  it is no use doing

  答案 C

  9. She is looking forward as much to his return as he himself to _______ her.

  A. have seen       B. see          C. seeing        D. be seen

  答案 C

  10. It's no use ________ your chickens before they are hatched.

  A. counting      B. count        C. to count        D. of counting

  蛋未孵勿先数;不要过早乐观

  答案 A

  11. I thought it was worthwhile _______ a hundred miles to see the basketball game.

  A. of driving      B. driving      C. drive        D. being driven

  答案 B

  12. When the little girl got back her answer sheet, she could not help _____.

  A. from crying    B. to cry       C. herself from crying     D. crying

  can't help doing

  答案 D

  13. I remember ______ my book somewhere but just can't find it.

  A. put      B. to put        C. putting        D. to be putting

  答案 C

  14. Don't forget ________ the light when you leave the office.

  A. to turn off    B. turning off      C. turned off      D. turn off

  forget to do 忘记要做的事情

  forget doing 忘记做过的事情

  答案 A

  15. Do you have any _______ the sentence ?

  A. difficulty to understand          B. difficulty in understanding

  C. difficulties at understanding       D. difficulties to understand

  have any difficulty in doing sth.

  答案 B

  16. “If you'd been here ten minutes earlier, you could have seen the doctor.”

  “But I couldn't help ______. Traffic was heavy.”

  A. to be late     B. being late      C. that I am late     D. lateness

  答案 B

  17. “How do you like your apartment?”

  “Not very well. We are considering ________ our lease.”

  A. not to renew                   B. to not renew

  C. not renewing                  D. renewing not

  consider doing sth.

  lease 租约、租契

  答案 C

  18. “Jane hates to do her homework.”

  “That's natural! No one ________ it.”

  A. really enjoys doing              B. really is enjoying to do

  C. enjoys to do it really             D. really enjoys to do

  enjoy doing sth.

  really 放在实义动词前系动词后

  答案 A

  19. Eric regretted _________ the earlier flight.

  A. not to take                  B. to have not taken

  C. not having taken             D. he would not take

  (Eric regretted not taking the earlier flight.)

  答案 C

  20. “I'm very tired.”

  “We really should stop _______ and go to bed.”

  A. to study       B. studying       C. of studying       D. from studying

  答案 B

  21. I was lucky that the cars stopped _______ the dog.

  A. avoided         B. to avoid      C. avoiding        D. to avoiding

  答案 B

  22. They will be as tall as you soon, if they ______.

  A. would help growing like that      B. keep to grow like it

  C. keep growing like that            D. will keep growing like that

  答案 C

  (二)动名词

  在句子中可以作主语、表语、定语、宾语。考生应特别注意有些动词。如mind, enjoy, avoid后面作宾语的只能是动名词,而有些只能是不定式,有些如remember, forget, stop 既可接动名词又可接不定式,但意义有差别。

  1.Would you mind ________ a little less noise?

  A. to make    B. make       C. making        D. to have made

  (答案 C)

  2.I remember ________ her at a party last weekend.

  A. to meet     B. meeting      C. having met       D. to have

  met(答案 B)

  3.You must remember _________ back the umbrella tomorrow.

  A. to bring     B. bringing      C. having brought  D. to have

  brought(答案 A)

  (三)分词

  1.现在分词与过去分词的区别

  现在分词表示主动或表示动作正在进行。

  China is a developing country.

  His words made me thinking a lot.

  过去分词表示被动或动作已经完成。

  The United States is a developed country.

  There was so much noise that the speaker couldn't make himself heard.

  2.分词的用法

  分词在句子中可以作定语、表语、宾语补足语、状语。

  Who is the woman standing by the door?(定语)

  The girl dressed in white is my sister.(定语)

  A letter posted today will probably reach in the day after towmorrow.(定语)

  The theory sounds quite convincing. (表语 物作主语表语是ing的形式,人作表语分词用ed的形式。)

  She seemed quite delighted at the idea. (表语)

  Working in this way, they greatly reduced the cost.(状语)

  Not even pausing to put on the coat, I ran out of the door.(状语)

  Built in Ming Dynasty, the bridge is over 800 years old.(状语)

  Do you see a boy running towards us?(宾语补足语)

  (感官动词如:see, hear, feel, watch 后可跟动名词,也可跟不定式,但意思有区别。Do you see a boy run towards us?  )

  You'd better have your shoes mended.(宾语补足语,have sth. done 让别人作某事)

  If students are caught cheating in exams, they will be kicked out of school. (宾语补足语,(kick sb. out of sth.: 驱赶某人。They knocked him out (of the club) for fighting. )

  实义动词have后面可以接三种形式作宾语补足语:现在分词,过去分词,省略to的不定式。

  have接现在分词(表示持续的动作)

  The hunters had the fire burning all the night in the woods.

  have接过去分词(表示被动)

  My mother had her hair cut as soon as she finished her work.

  Liping had two of his teeth knocked out in the fight at school.

  have接省略to的不定式(表示“让某人干某事”)。

  The teacher always has us recite texts.

  3.分词作状语

  与谓语动词相比,作状语的分词表示的都是比较次要的动作。它可以表示时间、条件和原因,也可以说明谓语动作发生的背景,描述谓语动作的状况或伴随谓语动作发生的情况。

  They sat facing each other.(伴随)

  She left the hall still weeping.(伴随)

  Insisting that we were not tired , we urged him to go on.(urge要求,让)

  分词变否定,在分词前加not.

  Not knowing his address, we couldn't get in touch with him.(get in touch with sb.和某人保持联系,原因)

  Seeing those pictures, I couldn't help thinking of the days we spent together. (时间)

  Absorbed in the work, he neglected food and sleep. (背景)

  He soon fell asleep, exhausted by the journey.(原因)

  Seen from the hill, the city looks magnificent. (条件)

  分词作状语时,它的逻辑主语一般就是句子的主语,逻辑主语无需表达出来。当两者不一致时,分词的逻辑主语应明确表达出来。

  She rushed into the room, her face covered with sweat.

  Weather permitting, we'll have a picnic tomorrow.

  Her eyes dimmed with tears, she did not see her mother enter.(dim 模糊)

  All things considered, her paper is of greater value than yours.

  (be of value=be valuable)

  4. 现在分词的完成式与被动式

  当分词表示的动作发生在谓语表示的动作之前时,分词应用完成式。构成:having +过去分词。

  Having finished his homework, the boy began to watch TV.

  Not having made adequate preparations, they thought it better to postpone the work till next week.

  The guest having left, they continued their discussion.

  在表示被动的含义时,如果该动作此刻正在进行,或与谓语表示的动作同时发生,就要用现在分词的被动形式。构成:being+过去分词。

  The building being repaired is our library.

  You'll find the topic being talked about everywhere.

  过去分词和现在分词的被动式都可以表示被动,试比较下面两例,看一看两者之间的区别。

  Do you know anything about the meeting being held in Beijing?(会议正在进行)

  Do you know anything about the meeting held in Beiing?(会议已经结束)

  现在分词被动式表示正在干什么,过去分词被动式表示已经发生的事。

  (三)分词

  1. When I returned home, I found the window open and a number of things _____.

  A. to steal      B. stealing      C. stolen        D. missed

  东西用miss要用现在分词。

  答案 C

  2. Not too many years ago, it was an ______ experience to travel 25 or 50 miles from home.

  A. excited       B. exciting       C. excitement      D. excitingly

  答案 B

  3. Some of the guests _______ to the party were from other cities.

  A. to invite    B. invited       C. being invited      D. had been invited

  invite sb.邀请别人

  答案 B

  4. The telephone was invented in 1876 by a man _______ Alexander Graham Bell.

  A. named       B. naming       C. that names       D. who named

  D的正确答案为:who was named)

  答案 A

  5. ________ the room, the teacher laid the instrument on the device.

  A. Entering    B. To enter     C. Having entered    D. Having been entered

  答案 C

  6. _______ the street, he was knocked down by a car.

  A. While crossing              B. While crossed

  C. Being crossing              D. Being crossed

  答案 A

  7. The doctor soon made the _______ patient feel at ease.

  A. worried       B. worrying      C. worry        D. worries

  答案 A

  8. He spoke clearly in order to _______.

  A. make him understanding       B. make him understand

  C. make himself understood       D. make himself understand

  答案 C

  9. I am ______ to hear that a man of your age and with such good sense should talk in this way.

  A. astonish      B. astonishing     C. astonished    D. to astonish

  答案 C

  10. The cinema, _______ last month, is very popular, especially among the young people in the town.

  A. opened      B. to open        C. opens        D. having opened

  D的正确答案为having been opened

  答案 A

  11. I wrote a letter to my parents, ________ them that I would spend the New Year's Day with them.

  A. telling      B. told        C. to be told           D. be told

  答案 A

  12. The musician, ________ for his splendid speech, was warmly received by the students.

  A. known     B. being known     C. knowing         D. having known

  答案 A

  13. The guests were _______ in the front rows ________ to the president attentively.

  A. seating ; listened              B. seating ; listening

  C. seated ; listened              D. seated ; listening

  seat: v. 用于被动语态。be seated: 使某人就坐。

  答案 D

  14. “What exactly did you see, Miss Garner?”

  “Well, I saw ________.”

  A. a bank being robbed with two men     B. robbing a bank two men    C. two men robbing a bank             D. two men who rob a bank

  D的正确答案为:two men who robbed a bank

  答案 C

  15. Would you be _______ by the idea of going to Greece?

  A. exciting      B. excited        C. excitable       D. excitedly

  excitable: 易兴奋的,易激动的。 an excitable child 一个易兴奋的孩子;an excitable race of people 一个易冲动的民族。

  答案 A

  16. “Why did you leave the meeting early?”

  “I found the discussion ________.”

  A. boring      B. bored       C. bore          D. boredom

  B的正确答案:I'm bored.

  boredom n.厌烦

  答案 A

  17. Is there anything you want from town? I am going to get _______.

  A. these letters mailed             B. mailed letters

  C. to mail those letters            D. those letters mail

  get=have

  have sth. done 让别人做某事

  答案 A

  18. Returning to my apartment _______.

  A. my watch was missing         B. I found my watch disappeared

  C. I found my watch missing       D. the watch was missed

  答案 C

  19. Whistling  merry tune, ___________.

  A. the Tire was fixed            B. the tire was fixed by Jack

  C. Jack fixed the tire            D. Jack was fixed with the tire

  答案 C

  20. His Health failing, _______ in 1782.

  A.so Henry Lee went on leave from the army

  B.the army gave Henry Lee leave

  C.when the army gave Henry Lee leave

  D.Henry Lee went on leave from the army

  go on leave 休假

  答案 D

  21. Weather _______, the picnic will be held as scheduled.

  A. permits     B. permitting      C. will permit       D. should permit

  答案 B

  22. ______ left before the deadline, it doesn't seem likely that John will finish the job.

  A. Although such a short time        B. It is such a short

  C. With so short time              D. With such a short time

  C的正确答案为:with so short the time

  答案 D

  (三)分词

  考试重点:考生应特别注意现在分词与过去分词的区别,区别这两类分词的标准主要有两点:

  (1)看动词所表示的动作是主动的还是被动的,主动的用现在分词,反之用过去分词。

  (2)看动作是正在进行还是已经完成,动作正在进行用现在分词,动作已经完成用过去分词。如:

  1.She found her husband surrounded by letters and papers and ________ very worried.

  A. look       B. to look       C. looks        D. looking

  (答案 D)

  2.Water ________ into vapor by the sun falls as rain.

  A. turns     B. turned       C. turning        D. is turned(答案 B)

  3.China is a _______ country while the U.S. is a _________ country.

  A. developed ; developed         B. developing ; developed

  C. developing ; developing         D. developed ; developing

  (答案 B)

  七、虚拟语气

  虚拟语气主要表示假想虚拟的情况以及主观愿望、建议、命令等。

  (一)虚拟语气的基本用法

  1.在含if引导的条件句的复合句中

  如果假设的情况不可能发生或发生的可能性不大,则主句和从句的谓语都要用虚拟语气。虚拟语气在不同语态中的表现形式如下:

  1)一般现在时

  从句:过去式(be 动词多用were)

  主句:would / could / might +动词原形

  如:I would certainly go if I had time.

  If it weren't raining, we wouldn't stay at home.

  2)一般过去时

  从句:had +过去分词

  主句:would / could / might + have 过去分词

  如:She would have come if she hadn't been so busy.

  You wouldn't have caught cold if you had put on more clothes.

  3)一般将来时

  从句:过去时,或were to / should +动词原形

  主句:would / should +动词原形

  如:If I were to (should) do it, I would do it in a different way.

  We wouldn't lose courage if we should (were to) fail again.

  有时从句表示的动作和主句表示的动作发生的时间不一致,谓语形式要根据具体的时间来调整。

  If you had followed the doctor's advice, you wouldn't be in hospital now.

  If I had spoken to him yesterday, I should know what to do now.

  有时候假设的情况通过介词短语、上下文等来表示,这时句子仍然要用虚拟语气。

  But for the storm, we should have arrived earlier.

  I was ill that day. Otherwise I would have attended the meeting.

  I would have written before, but I have been ill.

  She would have cried, but that he would laugh.(But that : 要不是)

  条件从句中如果含有助动词be, have, should, 可以将if省略,把这些词放到主语的前面。

  Had we made preparations, we might have succeeded.

  Should there be a storm, what should we do?

  Had they time, they would certainly come and help her.

  2.在as if, as though引导的从句中

  as if, as though引导的从句,如果表示的情况与现实不符,从句需用虚拟语气。表示现在的情况,谓语常用过去式,表示过去的情况,谓语常用“had +过去分词”。如:

  I remember the whole thing as if (as though) it happened (were) yesterday.

  He spoke to me as if I were deaf.

  It seems as if it was summer today.

  It seemed as if winter had come

  3.在wish后面的宾语从句中

  从句如果表示的是现在的情况,谓语一般用过去式,如果表示的是过去的情况,谓语用“had +过去分词”。如:

  I wish I were as strong as you.

  Many children wish they could see the Monkey King.

  He wishes he had studied economy instead of mathematics when he was at college.

  4.在It is time (that) 后面的从句中

  从句的谓语常用过去式。如:

  It is time we made a decision.我们该做决定了。

  It is about time you went to school.你早该睡觉了。

  It is hight time that he prepared for the coming examination.他早该为考试做准备了。

  5.在suggest, propose, advise, recommend, order, demand, request, desire, insist (坚决主张)等后面的宾语从句,suggestion, proposal, advice, order等后面的表语和同位语从句,以及It is suggested / requested / desired / proposed / ordered 等后面的主语从句中,从句的谓语要用“should +动词原形”(should可以省略)。如:

  I suggest we set off at once.(set off 出发)

  My suggestion is that we (should) tell her.

  Our only request is that this (should) be settled as soon as possible.

  The doctor insists that he give up smoking.

  She desires that her husband do it.

  It is desired that he should get everything ready by tomorrow.

  What do you think of his proposal that a committee be set up to look into the matter?

  It was ordered that they leave the city within three days.

  6.在It is necessary, It is important, It is essential, It is strange 等后面的主语从句中,谓语用“should + 动词原形”(should可以省略)。如:

  It is necessary that every student recite these new words.

  It is important that a scientist (should) keep up with the latest development in his field.(keep up with 跟上、赶上)

  It is strange that she (should ) have failed in the exam.

  7.以lest(以免), for fear that(以免) 和in case(以免)引起的从句(谓语多用should加动词原形构成)

  He took his umbrella lest it should rain.

  He put his coat over his son for fear that (lest) he should catch cold.

  Bring some money in case you should need it.

  (一)虚拟语气的基本用法

  1.要掌握虚拟语气if条件从句和主句分别的结构。

  2.特殊情况。

  1. He went on foot, but he _______ by bus.

  A. might gone           B. should gone

  C. should have gone    D. ought have gone

  答案 C

  2. You shouldn't have run across the road without looking round, you ______ by a car.

  A. might be knocked down        B. might have been knocked down

  C. might knock down              D. might be knocking down

  答案 B

  3. Why is the rubbish still here? It ought to _______ yesterday.

  A. be thrown away           B. have thrown away

  C. have been thrown away       D. throw away

  答案 C

  4. If you had taken my advice, none of this ________.

  A. would happen                   B. had happened

  C. would have happened           D. has happened

  答案 C

  5. Everything _______ if Albert hadn't called the fire department immediately after the fire broke out.

  A. would destroy                 B. would be destroyed

  C. would have destroyed           D. would have been destroyed

  broke out(break out) 爆发

  答案 D

  6. It's high time ________ about the traffic problem.

  A. something was done            B. everything is done

  C. anything will be done           D. nothing to be done

  答案 A

  7. It is necessary that we ________ have a good command of English at college.

  A. must       B. have to         C. should        D. ought to

  答案 C

  8. I _______ worry too much if I were you.

  A. oughtn't       B. mustn't       C. needn't       D. wouldn't

  答案 D

  9. If we _______ sooner, we might have got there.

  A. started    B. had started       C. would have started   D. start

  答案 B

  10. “The taxi only took ten minutes to get to the hotel.”

  “______ you were coming today, I'd have met you at the airport.”

  A. Have I known    B. I have known    C. Had I known   D. I had known

  答案 C

  11. The business is risky. But _______ , we would be rich.

  A. should we succeed          B. would we succeed

  C. might we succeed           D. could we succeed

  答案 A

  12. If you ________ that late movie last night, you wouldn't be sleepy.

  A. haven't watched              B. hadn't watched

  C. didn't watch                  D. wouldn't have watched

  答案 B

  13. “John wants to see you today.”

  “I would rather he ______ tomorrow than today.”

  A. comes         B. came      C. should come      D. has come

  答案 B

  14. I'd rather you _______ anything about it for the time being.

  A. do         B. didn't do      C. don't        D. didn't

  答案 B

  15. It's about time he _______ himself a wife and settled down.

  A. finds     B. found        C. should find     D. had found

  答案 B

  16. “I let Joe borrow our radio for the afternoon.”

  “That's all right, but I wish he _______ buy one of his own.”

  A. can       B. may       C. could          D. will

  答案 C

  17. I wish I _______ to study mathematics years ago.

  A. could start    B. can start      C. had started      D. started

  答案 C

  18. It is desired that he _______ his plan.

  A. carries out              B. will carry out

  C. carry out                D. carried out

  答案 C

  19. Since her blood pressure is much higher than it should be, her doctor insists that she _______.

  A. will not smoke                 B. should not smoke

  C. not smoke                     D. Both B and C

  答案 D

  20. The police chief ordered that parking _______ on Main Street during the rush hour.

  A. be prohibited                   B. be prohibiting

  C. is prohibited                   D. was prohibited

  prohibit 禁止

  答案 A

  21. The mother rejected my suggestion that she _______ her daughter the next week.

  A. would meet    B. shall meet       C. meet         D. met

  答案 C

  22. The housemaster requested that we ______ television on week nights.

  A. not watch     B. shouldn't watch   C. didn't watch     D. both A and B

  答案 D

  23. Some days go by much more quickly than others. Some hours seem as if they _____.

  A. will never end             B. would never end

  C. have never ended           D. had never ended

  答案 B

  24. “You finally made it, didn't you?”

  “Yes, _______ your help, I would have not succeeded.”

  A. but that     B. but for      C. but if           D. thanks to

  but for 接名词跟虚拟语气

  答案 B

  25. It's high time the child _______ how to behave properly.

  A. learns      B. learning        C. to learn       D. learned

  答案 D

  26. I wish that the weather ________ not so warm.

  A. had         B. be          C. were          D. is

  答案 C

  虚拟语气的表现形式主要有两种。一种是改变时态,主要用于带if条件句的句子、as if 从句、wish后面的从句、It is time后面的从句。如:

  1.If I were you, I would take the job.

  2.If I had come yesterday, I would have gone for the picnic with you.

  3.In spite of the noise, he went on working as if nothing were happening.

  4.Mary wishes that she ________ law instead of history when she   was in college.

  A. study      B. studied      C. has studied           D. had studied(答案 D)

  5.It is high time _________ about the traffic problem

  A. something was done            B. everything is done

  C. anything will be done            D. nothing to be done

  (答案 A)

  虚拟语气的另一种表现形式是谓语用“should + 动词原形(should可以省略)”。常见于suggest, propose, order, insist 等词后面的宾语从句,It is suggested that … 等主语从句,以及suggestion, order, proposal等词后面的表语从句、同位语从句。如:

  1.I suggest that she (should) be sent to hospital as soon as possible.

  2.It is suggested that ________ a while before we make a decision.

  A. she waited      B. she wait      C. she waits      D. she will wait

  (答案 B)

  3.He made the proposal that the dispute be settled by peaceful means.

 
 
  中心简介网站简介联系我们招聘信息常见问题版权声明网站广告教育网入口
  主办单位: 学信网 京ICP证030485号